In racial analysis, the focus is predominantly on dynamics of othering or dehumanization. This draws into view how police office Darren Wilson clearly saw a monster—“like a demon” or “Hulk Hogan,” not speaking, just making “a grunting, like aggravated sound”—rather than a human when he fired at Michael Brown. But this is only part of how race works; these perceptions are buttressed and arguably preceded by recognitions of sameness. This is key to understanding the way whites are able to recognize and favor each other, socially, economically, and politically. But the operations of sameness extend across the line between human and nonhuman that seems so central to othering or dehumanization, and perhaps this is a deep source of its power. Consider the extensions of personhood and protection to pets. Continue reading
Just published in Nature: “Experimentally induced innovations lead to persistent culture via conformity in wild birds.”This is such an important, fascinating report because it 1) expands the scope of “cultural species” beyond the primates; 2) shifts the analysis of cultural transmission across diverse taxa from the lab to the wild; 3) underscores the value of the model of sociality formulated by G. Tarde explicitly to encompass nonhumans, centered succinctly on innovation and imitation. Continue reading
What just happened in Anthropology? In the 2013 annual meeting there were zero abstracts or paper or panel titles featuring the word “Anthropocene”; this year there were 64! Compare that with “multispecies,” which has held steady at between 16-23 invocations after it first made its appearance in the program in 2010.[i] Why the surge of interest? More importantly, given overlapping concerns highlighted by these two keywords, why the sudden prevalence of one over the other? Continue reading
Species is a means for thinking both the stability and mutability of life forms. Species mark stabilized “moments”—sometimes over eons—as organisms transition from one discernible, reproducible form to another. Species organize varying degrees of internal variation—genetic and phenotypic—over against external constraints or resources that distinctly locate these life forms. Though the focus is often on specifying life, taxonomically species are reminders of the commonalities across genera, of the enormous amount of overlap in how life diversifies into multitudinous forms. Not just constitutionally (longevity, fertility, disease-resistance, etc.), but behaviorally as well. For taxonomists, species are a hypothesis, a speculation that a certain combination of morphology, behavior and location constitutes one of these unique tips of a genera. Species, then, is a point at which thought pauses in considering life, recognizing the import of form; focusing on the tension between diversity and uniformity, before scaling temporally through the vast expanse of time or spatially across the immensity of the planet.
A basic question highlights the complexity of species: how many are there? After 250+ years of the taxonomic project, that question is not yet answerable. With some 1.2 million species currently catalogued (http://www.sp2000.org/), there may yet be more than 8.7 million eukaryotic unidentified species globally, of which ~2.2 million are marine. The challenge of knowing species is utterly immense. Continue reading
This morning, chasing down a lead about research on plant memory from an article published in The Economist, I ended up at the journal Oecologia. This trajectory is increasingly familiar: a news source renders a popular account of life science research, and, trying to learn more, I end up at the academic source. The table of contents quickly overwhelmed me, though, and provoked me to stop for a moment and take stock of what I look for or find interesting in journals on genetics, biology, and botany. Continue reading
How are life forms best rendered as ethnographic subjects? Currently, in science studies, they are farmed principally as objects of interests to the human subjects under study—e.g. various practitioners in the life sciences. So their status is largely limited to “representations” in the heads and publications of scientists. But the various efforts at formulating multispecies ethnography suggest, even require, a more direct approach. Stefan Helmreich’s Alien Ocean: Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas (2009), frames this development succinctly. Continue reading
DNA barcoding highlights the variety of ways we bunch and characterize species—“disease vector species,” “invasive” and “conservation” species, as well “provisional” or “vouchered” species and “cryptic species complexes.” The first set of these labels reflects distinct interests and concerns as varied as public health or landscaping or climate change; the second stem from the knowledge apparatus by which we scientifically classify species. DNA barcoding is drifting somewhere between these distinct orientations—interested versus ostensibly neutral or at least objective. The barcoding approach is not designed for classification; rather, it relies entirely upon orienting samples to specimens that have been authoritatively connected to a species name by a taxonomist and stored somewhere.
Barcoding detaches and dissolves species being—its relationship to a genus, an environment, and a phylogeny—by distilling and rendering it as a genetic sequence that can be uniquely associated with one previously established taxon. Continue reading
The philosophical conundrums presented by the concept of species are immense, offering an expanse of theoretical and methodological controversies entailed by identifying species—either classifying “new” ones or locating existing ones amidst mutable taxonomical criteria and schemas. Much of this complexity seems to dissipate in the face of developing technologies that heighten our capacities to identify and observe species, though maybe without knowing them any better than we do now—just recognizing them more efficiently. New techniques such as DNA barcoding, satellite and cellular tagging, and drones, help alleviate much of our inability to recognize species, making them more familiar and accessible, but without contributing much yet to the taxonomic knowledge projects concerned with species. That is, these developing abilities to monitor and track species opens a critical rift with the centuries-old endeavors to know species through classification.
DNA barcoding is increasingly in the news, though its role in taxonomy and biology is somewhat disparaged. This technology is about identifying rather than discovering and classifying species; its uses are principally aimed towards regulatory and commercial concerns and functions, more than epistemological projects. The overarching goal towards which it is directed is moving species steadily towards ever-growing catalogues—that cultural form whose meanings and uses remain principally defined by the marketing innovation by Montgomery Ward in 1872, as the primary mechanism behind his mail-order empire. Not surprisingly, the technology’s inventor, Paul D.N. Herbert (University of Guelph), conceived of it as he reflected upon the singular capacity of a single form to identity, track, and properly all of the items in a supermarket (Wade, 2004). Today its uses are largely regulatory and commercial; it represents an effort at standardizing species, or our recognition of them, reflecting a principal concern with markets rather than taxonomy; this is principally applied to species that already have established niches in our commodity chains.
The growing applications of this technology reflect a fundamental unfamiliarity with the species, or at least their commodity forms, of which we are most fond. This was revealed in the news item that brought DNA barcoding into public awareness. Continue reading